NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
ERIC Number: ED180865
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1979
Pages: 13
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
"Masculinity, Femininity, Achievement Conflicts and Health."
Olds, Debra Eaton
The objective of this study is to measure achievement motivation in terms of psychological masculinity and femininity rather than in terms of biological gender. The terms, psychological masculinity and femininity, refer to sets of characteristics desirable for both sexes. Masculine characteristics include independence, self-confidence, competitiveness, and activeness; feminine traits are gentleness, helpfulness, warmth, and understanding. One hundred eighty-five students at New York University completed measures of masculinity, femininity, achievement motivation, a psychosomatic symptom checklist, and questions assessing the quality of relationships with family and friends. Academic transcripts were also made available. Four components of achievement motivation were measured: mastery (striving to meet internal standards of excellence), work (the desire to work hard and keep busy), competitiveness, and personal unconcern (an unconcern with the reaction of others toward achievement). Results indicate that mastery and competitiveness are related to masculinity, and work is related to both masculinity and femininity. In addition, males scored significantly higher than females on competiveness; the absence of masculinity is associated with feelings of self-doubt; competitive females were more likely to irrational fears and self-doubts; masculine women performed better in college than their less masculine counterparts; and fear of success is associated with absence of masculinity for both sexes. (Author/KC)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (New York, NY, September 3, 1979)