ERIC Number: ED180700
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1979
Reference Count: N/A
Vocational Education for American Indians: Then and Now.
Lockart, Barbetta L.
Vocational training has traditionally been a part of the services provided to Indian people by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, but for many decades the training offered was inadequate and inappropriate and students completing programs were unemployable either on or off the reservation. In 1975 as Indian education began to move from federal control to Indian control, Indian people became more involved in the decisions that affected them and their children. However, even today Indian students do not receive adequate and proper academic and vocational counseling in federal or public schools. Girls in particular have been discouraged from going on to college and have instead been trained for menial jobs such as those with domestic, janitorial, or clerical duties. During this century a number of vocational training programs have greatly affected Indians, including the 1933 Indian Emergency Conservation Work Program, the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act, and the 1946 Navajo Special Education Program. Assimilation programs like the Labor Recruitment and Welfare Program and the Voluntary Relocation Program were not successful because they took people off the reservation and thrust them into trying to cope with a strange culture. Today, present vocational training opportunities include the Higher Education Assistance program, working scholarships, loans, Indian Health Service training, and numerous other programs sponsored by tribes, colleges or through state or federal agencies. (DS)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A