ERIC Number: ED180686
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1978
Reference Count: N/A
Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: India.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.
Indian educational policy is based on the Gandhian philosophy that personality development and social transformation result from education based on Socially Useful Productive Work; that is, meaningful manual work resulting in goods or services useful to the community. Decentralized work programs plus a core curriculum are basic to secondary education. They are divided into two tracks--preparation for advanced education and a Vocational Spectrum, which emphasizes rural, agricultural, and related vocations. The Vocational Spectrum curriculum consists of language study; foundation courses in self-development, history, and economics; and vocational electives. Despite 1978 recommendations, limited work-experience programs exist in just 41,699 (7%) Indian schools. Only 22% of those schools have adequate equipment; 24% have work-experience teachers. Craft education exists in 30% of all schools, although only 3.5% have adequate equipment. Just .91% of all schools have work-experience or craft workrooms. Programs such as Lok Bharati, established to regenerate rural life with culturally compatible education; the Rural Higher Education Institute, designed to employ research results in villages; the Package Plan for Rural Development through Education, to improve educational relevance in rural areas; and the Rural University Project, to integrate rural education and rural development, successfully employ Socially Useful Productive Work policies. (SB)
Descriptors: Agricultural Education, Education Work Relationship, Educational Policy, Educational Programs, Elementary Secondary Education, Equal Education, Experiential Learning, Productivity, Quality of Life, Relevance (Education), Rural Development, Rural Education, Vocational Education, Work Experience Programs
UNIPUB, Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York, NY 10016
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.
Identifiers - Location: India