ERIC Number: ED173895
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1978
Reference Count: N/A
Thoughts on Reforming Professional Bureaucracies. Summary.
Lynch, Patrick D.
Studies in Educational Administration and Organization, n7-8 p75-87 Sum 1978
The humanization of bureaucracies is essential in modern society. Traditionally, the training of administrators has emphasized three models of organizations. The first is the productivity model, the second model assumes that fulfilling the needs of organizational members will increase client satisfaction, and the third assumes a stable environment that can be manipulated by attending to selected clients. In the past, professionals have shaped bureaucracies to their own ends and away from a primary aim of service to people. Four reforms of bureaucracies are advisable: (1) promoting norms that support professional science, satisfaction for the actors in the bureaucracy, and effective service to clients, (2) considering some organizations expendable, especially those that are inhumane to actors or clients, (3) replacing the ideal of the cosmopolitan upwardly mobile professional with that of a "cosmo-local" who is committed to the present job setting and client relationships as well as to professional effectiveness, and (4) restoring excellence of service to clients by developing and relating the three kinds of knowledge that may be called "gnosis" (theory and scientific development), "episteme" (skill or knowledge application), and "logos" (explanation of the relation between theory and skill). Four types of professionals can be identified by a classification system using the types of knowledge they emphasize (episteme or gnosis) and the type of orientation they have (client-community or science). (Author/JM)
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Haifa Univ., Mount Carmel (Israel). Center for Educational Administration.