ERIC Number: ED173549
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1978-Aug
Reference Count: 0
Barriers to Professional Advancement among Female Managers.
O'Leary, Virginia E.
It appears that there is nothing inherently associated with femaleness which should preclude the ascendence of women into management positions. However, barriers do exist and they stem from such factors as societal sex-role stereotypes, attitudes toward women in management, attitudes toward female competence, and the prevalence of the male managerial model. These factors are external to the woman herself but may create barriers to her job-related aspirations. Internal factors which may serve to inhibit the expression of upwardly mobile occupational aspirations include low self-esteem and fear of failure, as well as the perceived consequences of occupational advancement and the incentive value associated with such expectations. Increasing employment opportunities for women represent a small first step toward equalizing the distribution of men and women in the labor force. However, it appears that a concerted effort to modify existing societal attitudes, to provide environmental support for dealing with the real pressures arising from role conflicts, and to redefine the exclusively male managerial model will be required to diminish the impact of the pervasive stereotypes which seem to be remarkably effective in keeping women out of managerial positions. (BM)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the International Congress of Applied Psychology (9th, Munich, Germany, August, 1978)