ERIC Number: ED171469
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1974
Reference Count: 0
Outdoor Education: A Product of the Times. Taft Campus Occasional Paper No. 19.
Hammerman, Donald R.
In the years from 1930 to 1960 a number of socio-cultural forces influenced the emergence of outdoor education with the five major areas of influence including philosophical, social, economical, political and educational factors. Philosophical factors were found in the doctrines of Rousseau, Herbart, Pestalozzi and Spencer with the ideas of William James, John Dewey and Alfred Whitehead lending further support. Economically, the country experienced the worst depression in its history, an industrial revolution, and a world war which, while serving to strengthen the economy, created social problems which contributed to the need for outdoor education. Social factors included a changing family structure with accompanying problems such as divorce, alcoholism and juvenile delinquency. The stresses of the time were reflected in new demands placed on public schools; schools were asked to cope with problems once the sole responsibility of the family. Migration to the city and the spread of urbanization brought about noise, congestion, and a new appreciation for the peace of the wilderness. Schools responded to these influences with educational camping programs that would put children in touch with nature, give them laboratories for democracy in action, broaden their range of experience, and provide guidance in the mental, physical, social, emotional and aesthetic aspects of living. (DS)
Descriptors: Camping, Cultural Context, Economic Factors, Educational Change, Educational Development, Educational History, Educational Philosophy, Educational Psychology, Educational Trends, Elementary Secondary Education, Family Mobility, History, Outdoor Education, Political Influences, Resident Camp Programs, Social Change, Social Influences, Urbanization
Publication Type: Historical Materials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Northern Illinois Univ., Oregon. Larado Taft Field Campus. Dept. of Outdoor Teacher Education.
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