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ERIC Number: ED168107
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1979-Apr
Pages: 13
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Freedom of Expression and Rhetorical Art: The Problems of Avant-Garde Jazz.
Francesconi, Robert
Although the success of black jazz has been limited by its lack of recognition in the white-controlled music industry, its rhetorical development as an expression of black consciousness can be traced from the bebop of the 1940s and early 1950s, through the hard bop and free jazz of the 1960s, to the jazz orientation of the disco circuit in the 1970s. The bebop movement represented a musical protest against the image of jazz as simple folk music and expressed an awakening of racial identity in positive terms that offered an alternative to the mainstream of musical expression. Reflecting the rising tide of black consciousness, hard bop with its accent on hard blues, and free jazz with its emphasis on African rhythms and non-Western forms, both celebrated black culture in an intellectual and emotional manner. In the 1970s, many avant-garde artists currently perform on artist-owned labels, thereby maintaining greater control over their material while their music remains focused on third world themes and musical influences. In addition to valid allegations of racism in the music industry, other factors that influence the success or failure of avant-garde jazz include market economics, potential audience, and the industry's promotion of "surefire winners." (MAI)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southern Speech Communication Association (Biloxi, Mississippi, April 11-14, 1979)