ERIC Number: ED166673
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1978-Dec
Reference Count: 0
Differential Use of Paralanguage and Nonverbal Behavior by Tutors as a Function of Relative Age of the Student. Technical Report No. 491.
Plazewski, Joseph G.; Allen, Vernon L.
Twenty-four college students served as tutors in an examination of the use of paralanguage and nonverbal behavior in presenting a lesson intended for an adult of the tutor's age and for a child. Each subject was tape recorded twice while reading verbatim a lesson from a grade school textbook. Before each taping, the subject was told that the lesson would be played for either a college student or for a fourth grade student. In addition, a cardboard figure representing either a same-age or younger target was placed on a chair facing the subject. To obtain measures of paralanguage, 12 decoders rated the tone of voice used by each subject on the tape recordings. Measures of nonverbal behavior were provided by two trained observers. The results showed that the subjects used more variations in pitch, spoke more clearly, more slowly, and more softly when reading to the younger listener than to the same-age listener. The findings also showed that when reading to the younger listener, the subjects gazed more at the listener and engaged in more eyebrow activity than when reading to the same-age listener. In addition, both the paralanguage and nonverbal behavior used by the subjects were rated as being more friendly when addressing the younger listener than the same-age listener. (FL)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Research and Development Center for Individualized Schooling.