ERIC Number: ED166370
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: N/A
Reference Count: 0
A Summary of Operant Conditioning Techniques for Use by Supervisors and Teachers.
Toney, John W.
The same techniques of behavior modification that can be used by teachers to manage student behavior in the classroom can also be used by supervisors to alter the behavior of teachers. In both cases, it is necessary for the supervisors and teachers to focus primarily on the individual's behavior itself, rather than on what causes that behavior. To modify behavior, the teachers and supervisors must determine what response or type of behavior they wish to reinforce in the individual. The two types of response conditioning used to produce behavior modification are respondent conditioning and operant conditioning. Operant conditioning examines the relationship between an individual's behavior and his environment and attempts to understand the behavior through knowledge of the factors that modify the behavior. Both positive and negative reinforcement are used in operant conditioning to produce the desired behavioral response. Two other methods that teachers and supervisors can apply are (1) shaping or successive approximation, which is used to create a behavior that does not exist or to strengthen one that is not apparent, and (2) contingency contracting, which requires the teacher or supervisor to make a contract with the student under which rewards are promised in return for desired learning behavior. (Besides numerous quotations in the text, from behavior modification literature, a substantial bibliography is provided at the end for further study.) (ELG)
Publication Type: Guides - Non-Classroom; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Pittsburgh Univ., PA.
Note: Summary prepared by the Vocational Education Program