ERIC Number: ED165118
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1978-Dec
Reference Count: N/A
Basic Processes and Instructional Practices in Teaching Reading. Reading Education Report No. 7.
Pearson, P. David; Kamil, Michael L.
Informal reading models, although more like metaphors than truly scientific models, may be just as useful in making instructional decisions as formal models are in physical science. Models are a vital part of the instructional process even when teachers are not consciously aware of their presence. Three classes of reading models are bottom-up models, which assume that the translation from print to meaning begins with the print; top-down models, which assume that the translation process begins in the mind of the reader with an hypothesis or guess about meaning; and interactive models, which assume that the two types of processing are interactive. Components that are included in most models of reading are attention and capacity, memory, sensory capabilities, and perception, while common exclusions from models are intelligence, motivation, and instructional setting. Alternative, and sometimes opposing, decisions derive from alternative models in the areas of initial program emphasis, reading subskills, skill sequence, integration of reading activities, amount and type of practice, attention to oral reading errors, selection of reading materials, and diagnosis and remediation of reading difficulties. Teachers should try to articulate and make explicit whatever implicit models seem to guide their teaching behavior. (GW)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Illinois Univ., Urbana. Center for the Study of Reading.; Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA.