ERIC Number: ED164406
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1974
Reference Count: N/A
Anthropology and Cultural Pluralism. Three Case Studies: Australia, New Zealand and USA.
Havighurst, Robert J.
A historical overview of cultural attitudes in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States reveals that anthropologists greatly influenced the interaction between the Western "modern" culture and the primitive native culture in those countries. Historical analysis of attitudes toward Aborigines, Maoris, and American Indians provides the basis for this study. In all three countries, crucial periods occured when policies were formed which aimed to control the relations between the native and more modern cultures. The first period (1850-1859) was characterized by the pseudo-anthropological belief of "survival of the fittest." At this time all three countries felt that the native population would disappear. When it became clear that this would not happen, an attitude of assimilation emerged which assumed that the native groups would be merged into the dominant societies. Influential anthropologists during this period were Elkin ("The Australian Aborigines," 1928, 1958), and Firth ("Economics of the New Zealand Maori, 1928, 1959). Anthropologists in the United States did not have as much influence on assimilation theories and policies as did those in Australia and New Zealand. When the assimilation theory was found to be inadequate during the 1960's, anthropologists took an active part in defining cultural pluralism. Stanner, the Berndts, and Rowley in Australia, Hunn and Schwimmer in New Zealand, and Mead and Lurie in the United States were especially influential. Current activities of anthropologists concerned with fostering the movement toward cultural pluralism emphasize the education of policy makers, the public, and minority groups. (KC)
Descriptors: Acculturation, American Indian Culture, Anthropology, Attitude Change, Case Studies, Change Agents, Cultural Pluralism, Interaction Process Analysis, Literature Reviews, Minority Groups, Policy Formation, Social Change, Social History, Social Integration, Social Relations, Sociocultural Patterns, Trend Analysis
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington.
Identifiers - Location: Australia; New Zealand; United States