ERIC Number: ED161263
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977
The "L" Connection: The Interdependence of Second Language Programs. The Language Connection: From the Classroom to the World. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series, Vol. 9.
Kunkle, John F.
A discussion of programs in foreign language, bilingual/bicultural education, and English as a second language (ESL) considers the unique aspects of each program, what they have in common, and areas in which closer cooperation might be developed. Foreign (or second) language programs are characterized by an attempt to give students some proficiency in one or more of the four language skills and also perhaps to increase their acquaintance with and appreciation for the populations that speak the target language. ESL programs are designed for those who do not speak or understand English well enough to perform at grade level in the classroom. In bilingual/bicultural education, two languages and cultures are developed simultaneously: English and the student's native tongue. Four distinctive types of bilingual/bicultural programs that have been delineated are transitional bilingualism, monoliterate bilingualism, partial bilingualism, and full bilingualism. Commonalities of the programs are specified for language skills, everyday culture, "belletristic" culture, and curriculum integration. Suggested areas in which cooperation is possible are in obtaining financial support, sharing resources, teacher training and personnel, material development and distribution, making use of research, sharing career education materials and testing materials, incorporating classroom techniques, and publicizing language programs. It is cautioned that a fusion of the programs may work to the disadvantage of one or more of the individual programs, particularly if there is a sudden decline in public support. (SW)
Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Comparative Analysis, Cooperative Programs, Cultural Education, Educational Objectives, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language), Higher Education, Language Instruction, Language Programs, Language Skills, Models, Program Descriptions, Second Language Learning, Shared Services
Not Available Separately; See FL 009656
Publication Type: Reference Materials - Bibliographies
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, New York, NY.