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ERIC Number: ED160266
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1978-Aug
Pages: 42
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Women's Labor Force Participation and Socioeconomic Development: The Case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.
Hirschman, Charles; Aghajanian, Akbar
Using 1957 and 1970 census data, four independent variables were used to explore determinants and constraints of Malaysian women's participation in the modern sector: ethnic community, educational attainment, size of place of residence, and marital/family status. Women's labor force participation increased as agricultural employment declined and a sizeable growth in non-agricultural employment emerged; the pattern was consistent with the growth and direction of change in the Malaysian economy over the same period. About one third of women in each of three major ethnic communities (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) were employed, but they had rather distinctive patterns of type of work. Malay women tended to work in traditional agriculture, Indian women worked in modern agriculture, and Chinese women had a more diversified structure, with over half working in the modern non-agricultural sector. Single women were generally found in the modern non-agricultural sector, while most other women worked in agriculture. Rural areas provided agricultural employment, both in the family and wage sectors. Women in larger towns and cities were predominantly found in the modern non-agricultural sector. Women with the least education tended to work in the agricultural sector and those with the most education were found in the modern non-agricultural sector. Higher education appeared to provide aspirations and credentials that enabled women to find modern sector employment that was largely independent of access to jobs (residence) or family obligations. (BR)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Malaysia