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ERIC Number: ED159781
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1978-Mar-30
Pages: 23
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
"Muddling Through" as a Normative Decision Model.
Kritek, William; Colton, David
According to Charles Lindblom, policy-makers are faced with so many constraints that, rather than using rational models of problem-solving, they are forced merely to "muddle through." However, muddling through is not only a necessity, it is often desirable. Experience designing and managing an administrators' development program suggested that muddling through can be a virtue. Several characteristics of "muddling through," as defined by Lindblom, were present in the program. The process of choosing policies was intertwined with the process of choosing values. Program goals changed as the program progressed. The criterion for good policy was everyone agreeing on it. Policy was constantly made and remade. Timing of policy decisions depended on circumstances rather than a set schedule. Muddling through was used intentionally as a normative strategy in this program for three reasons: adult learning is most productive when the learner participates in the design of the learning program; program managers wanted to take advantage of "opportunism" or the use of the environment as a resource for program development; and the success of the program was dependent on an ongoing accommodation between the sponsors of the program and the school systems that participated in it. A new challenge for administrative science is to help administrators muddle through better. (Author/JM)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A