ERIC Number: ED158351
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1978-Apr
The Generic "Man": A Review of Literature and Implications for Communication Scholars.
Todd-De-Mancillas, William R.
Six empirical studies have revealed undesirable effects of the use of the generic term "man" and its alternative forms to indicate both males and females. The studies have dealt with the effects of the use of generic terms and of the label "Male Interest" in job advertisements, the question of whether people perceive generic terms in sentences and in chapter titles as referring equally as frequently to women as to men, subjects' reactions to the terms "chairman" and "chairperson," and subjects' reactions to written materials that use nongenerics instead of the traditional generic constructions. The findings suggest that the use of generics biases cognitions and behaviors in ways that discriminate against women and that nongenerics are not more difficult to comprehend than are generic terms. (The paper provides examples of nonpreferred usages and preferred alternatives, points out needs for future research studies on the use of generics and nongenerics, and urges communication educators to adopt nonsexist behaviors, thereby serving as appropriate role models for their students.) (GW)
Descriptors: Change Strategies, Communication (Thought Transfer), Elementary Secondary Education, Females, Higher Education, Job Application, Language Attitudes, Language Research, Language Usage, Males, Research Needs, Sex Differences, Sex Discrimination, Sex Fairness, Social Change, Written Language
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association (Chicago, Illinois, April 25-29, 1978)