ERIC Number: ED153892
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977-Apr
Reference Count: 0
The Future as Anthropology: Socialism as a Human Ecological Climax.
Ruyle, Eugene E.
This paper attempts to clarify the Marxian concept of socialism and concludes that social evolution will culminate in a world socialist system. By viewing sociocultural systems from an ecological perspective it is argued that individuals tend to maximize their consumption of labor energy, and minimize their own expenditure of labor energy. This minimax principle underlies the succession of human ecosystems: the process of the emergence, development, and overthrow of class rule. The earliest social order was the primitive communism of the hunting and gathering world, marked by an equal obligation of all in labor and consumption. As this classless society became large and sedentary, a ruling class emerged and feudalism followed. However, in developing the productive forces of society, the feudal rulers generated a new ruling class, the bourgeoisie, and capitalism soon replaced feudalism. According to the Marxian analysis of capitalism, it too will pave the way for a new social order. Unemployment, poverty, crime, racism, freedom of thought, critical social science, free press, and democratic institutions will give the working class both the reason and the power to overthrow capitalism. Finally, because socialism will provide roughly equal levels of consumption and the free development of individual potential, it will become a lasting social order. (Author/JK)
Descriptors: Anthropology, Capitalism, Communism, Democratic Values, Ecological Factors, Employer Employee Relationship, Evolution, Futures (of Society), Government (Administrative Body), Imperialism, Labor Force, Life Style, Marxism, Political Science, Revolution, Social Behavior, Social Change, Social Class, Social Problems, Social Stratification, Social Structure, Social Systems, Socialism, Sociocultural Patterns
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Anthropological Association (San Diego, California, April 1977)