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ERIC Number: ED152776
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1978
Pages: 39
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Academic Engaged Time, Content Covered, and Direct Instruction.
Rosenshine, Barak Victor
The author notes a shift in educational research from teachers' behaviors as related to student achievement gains to other factors affecting such gain. A review of studies published since 1973, and an exploration of some of their concepts, is undertaken. Major changes are summarized as (1) increased focus on student variables, (2) a convergance of results supporting "direct instruction," and (3) information on the relation between seatwork and discussion to gain in achievement. The literature review is limited to basic skills (reading and mathematics) in grades one through five. Major concepts examined are "academic engaged time" (time students spend in moderately difficult, academically related material) and "direct instruction" (activities directly related to making progress in reading and mathematics,) and to settings promoting those activities. Seven variables reflecting management and organization of the classroom, and thus affecting achievement gain, are discussed: teacher role, student choice of activity, grouping, class management, seatwork, discussion, and atmosphere. Research has indicated that it is the formal model of instruction, with its behavior-analytic, detail-specific, teacher-directed, large group, narrow-questioning technique, which is most effective for promoting gains in reading and mathematics. A discussion of the relative value of this dydactic approach to more heuristic models is presented. Major projects remaining in dydactic instruction research are noted for the seven variables listed. (MJB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A