ERIC Number: ED151670
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977-Sep
Reference Count: 0
The Effects of Schooling, Culture, and Environment on Cognitive Development.
Wagner, Daniel A.
A cross-cultural study undertaken in Morocco was designed to compare the effects of age, schooling and environment on the development of recall and recognition memory. The subjects were 384 males ranging in age from 7 to 2l years. Additional groups of subjects were also studied: Koranic students, Moroccan rug sellers, and American university students. Based on the model of memory of Atkinson and Shiffren (1968), it was hypothesized that structural features of memory may be less variable across cultures or lifetime experiences than control processes, which are known to vary with chronological age in educated Western subjects. The recall and recognition tasks were designed to tap both structural features and control processes in memory. Results showed that structural features, such as the capacity of echoic store (recall) and the rate of forgetting (recognition), were relatively invariant with age and experiential background. In contrast, control processes, such as verbal rehearsal (recall) and rate of acquisition (recognition), depended on such factors as schooling and urbanization. Finally, based on these and other data, it was hypothesized that there exist both universal and culture-specific aspects of memory and cognition. (Author)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development (4th, Pavia, ITALY, September 19-25, 1977)