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ERIC Number: ED147750
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977-Aug-26
Reference Count: 0
Evaluations of Leadership Behavior: Do Sex or Androgyny Matter?
Butterfield, D. Anthony; Powell, Gary N.
This study extends previous research investigating the extent to which leadership behavior evaluations are a function of the sex of the leader being evaluated as well as the evaluator's sex. Androgyny (the masculinity/femininity of the evaluator's own personality) was added as a possible predictor, and the evaluator's occupational level (student vs. manager). Four general hypotheses were tested: evaluations of leadership behavior are a function of (1) sex of the leader, (2) sex, (3) androgyny, and (4) evaluator's occupational level. Undergraduate business students and managers in evening courses (total N= 335) were administered one of two versions of a questionnaire containing four stories, each depicting a leadership style. Managers' names were altered to indicate males or females. Also, subjects filled out an androgyny scale twice, once describing themselves and once describing a "good manager." They were then classified into four categories: masculine, feminine, androgynous, and neutral. Answers to eight evaluative questions for each leadership style were subjected to multiple analyses of variance. In general results failed to support both the sex and androgyny hypotheses. Occupational level was the best predictor. These and prior results concerning sex as an explanatory variable in leadership research are discussed in light of current social awareness of sex-role stereotypes. (Author)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (San Francisco, California, August 26-30, 1977)