ERIC Number: ED144482
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1976-Jul
Reference Count: 0
The Structure of Academic Governance in the United States. Yale Higher Education Program Working Paper.
Clark, Burton R.
American higher education developed under conditions vastly different from those of the Continent and Britain. Nine colleges were established in the colonial period before the Revolutionary War. Although some of them were related to state governments in their early history, they were even then importantly independent in comparison to continental institutions. The university came late to America, long after Bologna and Paris and Oxford had experienced centuries of development, decline, and renewal. Both American public and private universities married the German model of specialized research and advanced training to the older English-American model of liberal education by augmenting undergraduate colleges with graduate and professional schools. Along with the private college, the private university, and the state university, other types of institutions emerged, such as the separate teachers' colleges, public comprehensive colleges, technological colleges, art schools, and the two-year college. Complex and contradictory trends have evolved in academic government in recent years, and no simple picture can be drawn that typifies the whole country. The organizational evolution of the American system of higher education as a whole is simultaneously unilinear and multilinear. The unilinear evolution is toward ever larger systems, and the multilinear toward greater diversity within systems. (Author/MSE)
Descriptors: Comparative Education, Educational Change, Educational History, Governance, Higher Education, Institutional Administration, Organization, Postsecondary Education as a Field of Study, Social Influences, United States History
Program of Comparative and Historical Studies of Higher Education, Institution for Social and Policy Studies, Yale University, 1732 Yale Station, New Haven, Conn. 06520
Publication Type: Books
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.; Lilly Endowment, Inc., Indianapolis, IN.
Authoring Institution: Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. Inst. for Social and Policy Studies.