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ERIC Number: ED143432
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977-Feb
Pages: 19
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Historical Perspectives on Parent Education in America.
Bjorklund, Gail
This paper traces the development of parent education in America from 1700 to the present. Discussed are the emphasis, scope and organizational patterns of delivery during five periods: 1700-1850, 1850-1900, 1900-1930, 1930-1955, and 1955-present. From 1700 to 1850 information to parents generally reflected Calvinist-Evangelical philosophy. The child's moral character as an adult was the responsibility of his or her parents, whose duty it was to break the child's inherently depraved and evil will. Parent education came primarily from church leaders, pamphlet-like child rearing literature, and maternal associations. Between 1850 and 1900, the emphasis remained on moral virtue but a more nurturing tone was adopted. Information from professionals, rather than church leaders, was used by national maternal organizations that were formed in the later 1800's. From 1900 to 1930 childhood became a subject of scientific inquiry. Parent education programs were established with private and federal funding and many supplementary service organizations came into being. Because of the influence of the depression and acceptance of psychoanalytical principles, the emphasis from 1930 to 1955 was on dealing with parental self-understandings and values which could affect children. Parent education programs were increasingly implemented by government organizations. The emphasis of the last two decades has been on intervention and parent participation in a wide range of activities related to needs of children and families. The number of federally funded programs has grown dramatically. Implications for future parent education are discussed. (SB)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at "Toward the Competent Parent: An Interdisciplinary Conference on Parenting" (Atlanta, Georgia, February 21-22, 1977)