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ERIC Number: ED142574
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1977-May
Reference Count: N/A
Frequency of Evaluation as a Measure of Links Between Levels in School Organizations.
Utande, Emmanuel A.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.
The frequency of evaluation across organizational levels (i.e., evaluation of inferiors by superiors) is related to three variables: the existence of bureaucratic rules, availability of information across levels, and interaction among participants. In a processual perspective, as opposed to a structural one, evaluation is viewed as a key mechanism for linking levels in organizations. The interlevel linkages created by evaluation processes among superintendents, principals, teachers, and students are examined. The fewer the levels in an evaluation situation in schools, the stronger the correlations between frequency of evaluation and bureaucratic procedures, availability of information, and interaction. Availability of information and interaction were more positively correlated with frequency of evaluation than were bureaucratic rules, which may serve as substitutes for direct evaluation. Interaction was the most powerful predictor of the frequency of the principal's self-reported evaluation of teachers on the task of teaching reading; bureaucratic rules were least powerful. Both information and interaction were powerful predictors of the teacher's report of the frequency with which the principal evaluated the teacher on the task of teaching subject matter; bureaucratic rules had no separate effect. Findings suggest that it is theoretically and empirically fruitful to adopt a processual approach in the study of interlevel linkages in school organizations. Frequency of evaluation appears to be a major indicator of the extent of loose coupling within organizations. (Author/EVH)
Descriptors: Administrator Evaluation, Board of Education Policy, Bureaucracy, Communication (Thought Transfer), Difficulty Level, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation, Interaction, Organization, Organizational Communication, Peer Evaluation, Power Structure, Principals, Schools, Student Evaluation, Superintendents, Teacher Evaluation
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Center for Research and Development in Teaching.