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ERIC Number: ED141497
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1976-Oct
Reference Count: 0
Feedback in Programmed Instruction and Text Materials. Technical Note 77-1.
Kulhavy, Raymond W.
The purpose of the study was to review the data available on feedback processes and to show how postresponse information can best be utilized with written instruction and the design of instructional materials. Results, organized under five topic headings (feedback complexity, feedback as reinforcement, effect of high feedback, feedback and learning, and feedback and learner confidence), showed that (1) there is no decisive evidence that increases in feedback complexity yield parallel increases in learning or that feedback necessarily functions as reinforcement, (2) high feedback availability negates its facilitation effect, since students merely copy answers and learn little, (3) if feedback availability is controlled and the learner is familiar with subject matter, feedback serves to let the students know when they are right or to correct them if they are wrong, and (4) feedback is most effective when student response confidence is high, whether or not his/her initial response is correct. It was concluded that feedback facilitation is negated if feedback availability is high and the learner merely copies instead of reading the material, or the material studied is so difficult that the student must guess at answers and then try to associate feedback with the question; otherwise feedback acts to confirm correct responses or provides corrective action. (Recommendations are included.) (LAS)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Navy Personnel Research and Development Center, San Diego, CA.