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ERIC Number: ED140975
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977
Reference Count: 0
Age and Socio-Economic Status in Children's Behaviors in Competitive and Cooperative Working Conditions.
Pepitone, Emmy A.; And Others
This study compared the interpersonal behavior and performance of 914 kindergarten through fifth grade children working on a task under cooperative versus competitive conditions. Subjects were 467 urban white, blue-collar family children and 447 suburban white children with parents from predominantly managerial and professional occupations. The children were grouped into like-sex triads and were asked to make a block design. In the cooperative condition the children were instructed to collaborate in producing one product, while in the competitive condition they were instructed to make separate products. Analysis of precoded observations revealed significant main and interaction effects for working condition, grade and social class. Nonverbal behaviors were the principal mode of interaction in competitive conditions, especially among young and working class children. In cooperative conditions, a significant increase in other-oriented behavior occurred with age. No SES differences in this behavior were found for young children. Beginning with third grade, working class children were significantly more other-oriented. Upper middle class children at all ages performed better in competitive conditions. Findings are examined in terms of children's postulated decentration processes and differential parental socialization practice. (Author/JMB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Study based on two unpublished Ph.D. dissertations (Bryn Mawr College) and a paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (84th, Washington, D.C., September 3-7, 1976)