ERIC Number: ED140933
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977-Mar
Reference Count: 0
The Development of Social Interchange Patterns from 12-42 Months: Cross-Sectional and Short-Term Longitudinal Analyses.
Holmberg, Margaret C.
This study charts the development of social interchange patterns (reciprocity) between familiar peers and adults from written and videotaped observations of 72 children at ages 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 months. Two additional groups of eight children were observed over a 12-month interval in a parallel longitudinal design. Measures included prosocial and assertive response units as well as structural features of the interchange sequences. Findings, supported by both the longitudinal and the corss-sectional design, indicated that: (1) prosocial acts increased over time and the relative number of assertive acts decreased; (2) even the 12-month-olds discriminated between social partners and emitted few assertive acts with adults; (3) the increase in prosocial acts was due in part to changes in the form of the acts, i.e., an increase in verbal initiations; (4) the increase was also due to the growing capability of the child to maintain interchanges, first by responding to overtures rather than ignoring then and subsequently by varying the response acts in elaborated patterns; (5) the major changes in form and content of social acts with peers were preceded by the appearance of that pattern with adults. The data strongly support the view that the development of reciprocal acts reflects simultaneously changing capabilities of children and concomitant shifts in the social feedback provided them. (Author/MS)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (New Orleans, Louisiana, March 17-20, 1977)