ERIC Number: ED140028
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Planning and Change: Essential Considerations and Fundamental Relationships.
Jesser, David L.
Broad scale implementation of the career education concept will be increased if the processes of planning and change are fully understood and utilized by practitioners. Change occurs with or without planning. The major purpose of planning is to bring about some needed and agreed upon change designed to correct or improve upon an existing situation. Appropriate planning provides for collection and analysis of data makes possible an orderly and systematic procedure for achieving change, identifies goals and objectives, and identifies feasible alternative courses of action. For effective and meaningful planning and change, the relationships between the two processes must be carefully considered. Planned change requires at least three fundamental components: Analysis of "what is" and identification of discrepancies between "what is" and "what should be," planning or designing of procedures to reduce the discrepancies, and provisions for implementing and evaluating the plans. Organizations should direct special attention to awareness of need, collection and analysis of data, determination of defensible alternative procedures, development and testing of plans, and dissemination of worthwhile practices. In addition to understanding the interrelationships of change and planning, educational organizations must consider the relationship of many environmental factors to change, including attitudes, technology, legal constraints, role of leadership, evaluation, and sources of change. (LMS)
Publication Type: Guides - General
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.