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ERIC Number: ED139740
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1977
Reference Count: N/A
The Complex of Expectations and Student Achievement.
Smead, Valerie S.; Chase, Clinton I.
Two issues related to expectation and student achievement were examined in this study of eighth-grade mathematics students: (1) the influence of parental, peer, and self-expectation on student performance; and (2) the influence of cultural expectations, or stereotypes, on student performance. Students were questioned at the beginning of the school year as to their individual achievement expectations and, also, as to their perceptions of parental and peer expectations. Sex role expectancy groups were constructed based upon student sex stereotype expectations in combination with student sex. Teacher expectations were measured by predicting the top and bottom ten achievers in their class. Expectations were contrasted with achievement outcomes measured at mid-year and end-of-year points. Data analysis suggested that: (1) Teacher expectation clearly is not the sole source of influence in student achievement--student expectations may perhaps be more important; (2) A network of expectations operates, consisting of the student, his/her peers and parents, and the teacher; (3) Student expectations, not only for themselves as individuals but for themselves as members of the male or female sex, relate significantly to achievement outcomes and interact with each other in this relationship; (4) In courses traditionally thought of as male areas of superiority, the expectation for male superiority may be translated into differential achievement favoring males, more particularly when the student is at the age of puberty, as were the subjects of this study. (MB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A