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ERIC Number: ED139515
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1977-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
The Effects of Schooling and Environment on Memory Development.
Wagner, Daniel A.
This paper reports two experiments investigating the effect of schooling and urbanization on short term recall and recognition memory. Subjects were 384 male children and young adults living in Morocco representing urban and rural and schooled and nonschooled backgrounds. Additional subject groups--including Koranic school students, Moroccan rug sellers and University of Michigan students--were also tested to study possible culture-specific influences on memory. In the first experiment, subjects were required to recall the position of a familiar animal in a series of seven briefly presented items. Results indicated that recency recall, or echoic store, was present in all populations studied regardless of age, whereas primacy recall, considered to be a function of verbally mediated rehearsal strategies or control processes, developed with age only for schooled subjects and to a lesser extent for urban nonschooled subjects. In the second experiment, the same subjects were shown 30 pictures of rug patterns (15 original patterns and 15 duplicates) and asked to identify duplicates. Duplicates appeared in lags of 1, 5, 10, and 25 intervening items. Schooled subjects performed better than nonschooled, and rural subjects (schooled and nonschooled) scored better than urban subjects. Results support previous research indicating little age-related change in forgetting rates and, with minor exceptions, no variation in forgetting rate with respect to schooling and environment. Results are discussed in relation to other cross-cultural and memory research. Nine pages of tables and illustrations are included. (SB)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Morocco