ERIC Number: ED135903
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977-Jan-13
Reference Count: 0
Poverty Status of Families Under Alternative Definitions of Income; Background Paper No. 17.
Korbel, John J.
This background paper provides the basis for evaluation of programs aimed at reforming social welfare programs. It analyzes the effect of current income transfer programs on poor families. Public expenditures for social welfare programs have grown four-fold while at the same time, the percentage of families in poverty has declined by only 30%. This is a result of the types of programs that account for most of the recent growth in the number of poor families and the inadequacies of the measures used to estimate families in poverty. There are three classes of social welfare expenditures; social insurance programs, cash assistance programs, and in-kind programs. In fiscal year 1976, social insurance programs, designed to replace reduced income, accounted for 68% of major government income-transfer payments. Most of the recent rapid growth has been in in-kind transfers, such as food stamps and medicare. Expenditures for in-kind transfers increased sixteen-fold over the last decade, and cash assistance increased four-fold. The effectiveness of transfer programs varies according to family type, race, age, and region of residence. Detailed statistical tables provide information on the assistance programs described. (Author/AM)
Descriptors: Evaluation Methods, Evaluation Needs, Income, Low Income Groups, Poverty, Poverty Programs, Welfare Agencies, Welfare Recipients, Welfare Services
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 (Stock Number 052-070-03869-1, $1.05)
Publication Type: Legal/Legislative/Regulatory Materials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Congressional Budget Office.