ERIC Number: ED134608
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1975-Aug
Reference Count: 0
Water and the Duck's Back: The Use of Formative Evaluation in Schools. Occasional Paper No. 5.
Deal, Terrence E.; Huguenin, Kathleen M.
This paper, which is part of the work of the Stanford University Environment for Teaching Program, discusses problems that are repeatedly found in the literature on formative evaluation, with emphasis on the special difficulties of conducting formative evaluation in schools. It defines the requirements of effective formative evaluation as (1) a link between evaluation and decision making (provided by continuous assessment and feedback), (2) involvement of all who will be affected by decisions based on evaluation, (3) a theoretical framework to support the evaluation, and (4) close attention to the school's social and political setting. On the basis of this discussion the paper suggests a survey-feedback approach which provides objective information and a process involving all relevant constituencies in a dialogue with natural work groups in the school to define school problems and develop strategies for their solution. This formative evaluation strategy is aimed at institutionalizing problem solving in a school, and in this regard the paper examines the problems and prospects of the approach. (Author/RC)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Center for Research and Development in Teaching.