ERIC Number: ED134591
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1976-Nov
Reference Count: 0
A Factorially Designed Experiment on Teacher Structuring, Soliciting, and Reacting. Research and Development Memorandum No. 147.
Clark, Christopher M.; And Others
This experiment on teacher effectiveness focuses on the causal effects of teacher behavior within the classroom recitation. Each of four teachers used one of eight treatments in teaching an ecology course to eight sixth-grade groups. The treatments differed at two levels of teacher structuring, soliciting, and reacting. High structuring consisted of reviewing, stating objectives, outlining the lesson, indicating important points, and summarizing. Low structuring was the absence of these behaviors. High soliciting consisted of asking a large percentage of "thought" questions and waiting about three seconds or more after a student's response before calling on a second student. Low soliciting asked a low percentage of "thought" questions and waited only a short time after response. High reacting consisted of praising correct responses, providing reasons for wrong answers, and prompting. Low reacting consisted of using neutral feedback after correct response and not providing reasons for wrong answers. Tests were given to the students before and after the experiment. Results suggest that uncontrolled and unmeasured teacher behaviors and characteristics influenced student achievement and attitude. Analyses indicate that student perceptions mediated the effects of structuring and reacting. A follow-up study showed that merely reading the materials contributed substantially less to student achievement than the combination of reading and teaching. Statistical tables are included. Five appendixes outline the elements of the nine-lesson unit used in the experiment. (Author/JD)
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques, Cognitive Tests, Educational Research, Educational Strategies, Elementary School Teachers, Experimental Programs, Experimental Teaching, Learning, Response Style (Tests), Student Reaction, Teacher Attitudes, Teacher Behavior, Teacher Effectiveness, Teaching Methods, Teaching Styles
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Center for Research and Development in Teaching.
Note: Pages 448-450 of original document are copyrighted and therefore not available