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ERIC Number: ED133042
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1976-Sep-3
Reference Count: 0
Organization Facilitates Memory--If You Have the Appropriate Classification Skills.
Tomlinson-Keasey, C.; Crawford, Donald G.
Two studies (1) investigated memory strategies in subjects with different levels of classification skills, and (2) examined the role of early classification skills in memory. Subjects in Study 1 were 60 (kindergarten and first-grade) children. Classification skills were assessed by a pretest. Subjects were assigned to one of two conditions, free recall or cued recall, then were individually shown 20 slides representing familiar categories and items and were asked to recall as many as possible. When subjects in the free recall finished, a second presentation began. When subjects in the cued recall finished, category cues were provided in the form of four questions. This procedure was repeated three times with each child. A repeated measures analysis of variance found three main effects significant (classifier type, recall condition, trials). Two groups of children were distinguished from the results: (1) those who could both generate and profit from a strategy; and (2) those who could profit from a strategy but were unable to generate it. In the second study, 93 preschool children were pretested on classification skills with a sort-resort task, and then given a shortened memory task. Results indicate that the main effect of classification skill was not significant, but that the main effect of the recall situation was significant. Both studies suggest that operations of class inclusion and hierarchical classification are at least correlated with the transition to efficient use of organization skills in memory. (Author/SB)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (84th, Washington, D.C., September 3, 1976)