ERIC Number: ED126150
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1976-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Testing, Tracking and Teachers' Expectations: Their Implications for Education and Inequality. A Literature Review and Synthesis.
Persell, Caroline Hodges
The question examined extensively in this document is why socioeconomic status and race are related to academic achievement. While most explanations look to the cognitive or cultural deficiencies of lower class and minority students, this volume considers an alternative explanation. Prevailing definitions of academic achievement undoubtedly contribute to unequal results, but probably do not entirely explain differential school achievement. The educational concepts, structures, and interactions operating in schools powerfully shape outcomes as well. While many examples could be considered, three are scrutinized here in depth, namely IQ testing, the structural arrangement of tracking, and teachers expectations and behaviors. The review of literature focuses on how these ideas and processes may depress the academic achievement of lower class or minority students and enhance the achievement of middle class or white children. Thus, this review has two purposes: to identify relationships between testing, tracking, teacher expectations, and unequal educational outcomes; and to try to specify the conditions under which those relationships occur. The evidence reviewed supports the assertion that schools substantially help to create and legitimize inequalities between children. (Author/DEP)
Descriptors: Ability Grouping, Academic Achievement, Aptitude Tests, Demography, Disadvantaged Youth, Educational Environment, Educational Testing, Elementary Secondary Education, Expectation, Homogeneous Grouping, Intelligence Tests, Language Styles, Literature Reviews, Lower Class Students, Minority Group Children, Race, Racial Discrimination, Self Concept, Social Discrimination, Socioeconomic Status, Standardized Tests, Student Characteristics, Student Evaluation, Student Placement, Student Teacher Relationship, Teacher Attitudes, Teacher Behavior, Teacher Characteristics, Teachers, Test Validity, Testing, Testing Problems
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.; American Jewish Committee, New York, NY. Inst. on Pluralism and Group Identity.; National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A