ERIC Number: ED122424
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1976-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
Circumvention and Cooptation in the Planning of New Schools.
Sullivan, Ellen W.; Kironde, E. Wamboi
This paper concentrates on two strategies, circumvention and cooptation, used by planners and implementers to overcome various obstacles in designing and starting-up innovative schools. The authors show how the special features of a new school's relationship with its environmental setting create the need for these strategies; illustrate through examples from the field certain dynamics at work as the new school carries out these strategies; and offer some practical guidelines that will be useful to planners and implementers of new schools. Of the two kinds of cooptation possible--classic, in which the school seeks suPport in order to neutralize resistance, and collusive, in which the school seeks support in order to get people's strategic aid in circumvention--only collusive is discussed. The four main techniques for getting around rules are concealment and lying, manipulating the letter of the law to your own ends, ignoring directives, and working through people. The rules of thumb in the use of cooptation and circumvention strategies fall into five general categories: distinguishing the organization from the environment, environmental mapping and prediction, visibility minimization, political skill, and purposeful strategizing. (Author/IRT)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.; Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Teachers College.
Authoring Institution: N/A