ERIC Number: ED121483
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
An Investigation of the Psychosocial Origins of Need for Achievement.
Kowatrakul, Surang; And Others
The purposes of this study were: (1) to develop measures of the need for achievement in 4-5-year-old children, and (2) to discover the psychosocial origins of need for achievement. The hypotheses regarding the second purpose were that middle and lower socioeconomic status (SES) mothers of children characterized by high need for achievement would behave in the following ways: (1) set realistic (i.e., not extreme) expectations in achievement training for their children; (2) encourage early independence; (3) demonstrate involvement in on-going achievement on the part of their children; (4) show warmth, supportiveness, approval, and encouragement of their children's achievement effort; and (5) show consistency in methods of reward and punishment. The subjects were 134 mothers and their children: 66 white middle SES and 68 black lower SES subjects. The criterion measure of need for achievement for 4-5-year-old children derived from this study was called "Generalized Achievement Motive," which was defined by a child's persistence, resumption of challenging task, and intermediate risk preference behaviors. The Parental Expectancy Measure (PEM) was employed in interviewing each mother to obtain parents' expected ages for boys and girls in independence granting and achievement training. Results supported only the hypothesis that, regardless of SES level, mothers whose children showed high need for achievement were more involved in children's on-going achievement than other mothers. (Author/BRT)
Descriptors: Achievement Need, Achievement Rating, Blacks, Expectation, Measurement Instruments, Mothers, Motivation, Parent Attitudes, Parent Child Relationship, Parent Role, Preschool Education, Psychological Patterns, Questionnaires, Social Differences, Social Reinforcement, Socioeconomic Influences, Whites
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A