ERIC Number: ED120146
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1974-Oct
Reference Count: N/A
Institutional Factors in the Education of Teachers: An Historical Preview.
Pemberton, S. Macpherson
This paper presents a historical overview of teacher education in America. It begins with a description of normal schools, whose function was closely tied to the church (e.g., teaching people to read the Bible). Then it covers the educational revival in the 19th century which established free public schools. James Carter, Samuel Hall, and Horace Mann are discussed in terms of their educational leadership. Standards for teachers were low at first, with high school graduation not even a minimum requirement. Normal schools turned into teachers colleges with higher standards, and finally teachers colleges became liberal arts colleges. Gradually the normal school disappeared, and teacher education became the province of colleges and universities. A discussion of teacher supply and demand explains both the earlier periods when far too few teachers were trained, and the modern period in which, for a number of reasons, there are too many teachers. The paper also describes the development of the science of education through advances in psychology, testing, child development, and the behavioral sciences. Criticisms of education departments are covered, notably those which state that education courses are too shallow and unscholarly. Finally, the paper describes the conflict between educational preparation through history, philosophy, and scholarship, and preparation through teaching of techniques and administration. (CD)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.