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ERIC Number: ED118477
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1975-May
Pages: 17
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Macro and Micro Implementation.
McLaughlin, Milbrey Wallin
Drawing from an analysis of educational innovation attempted in 200 school districts throughout the United States, this essay describes critical aspects of the implementation process. Four micro-level premises are critical to larger macro-level change policies. First, external inputs into the implementation process must be congruent with local needs, capacities, and preferences. Second, effective implementation of significant change is characterized by the process of mutual adaptation. This may include the modification of goals, technologies, behavioral change in students and teachers, and evaluation plans. Third, effective implementation depends on the receptivity of the institutional setting to change. Indifferent and unreceptive environments are most frequent and fail to provide necessary support for change. Fourth, local school systems vary not only in their receptivity to change but also in their capacity to innovate; therefore, they can be expected to experience different implementation problems for the same class of innovations. Suggested implications for macro-level planning and implementation are briefly described. (Author/DE)
The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California 90406 ($1.50)
Publication Type: Books
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A