ERIC Number: ED117582
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1973-Aug-27
Reference Count: 0
Racial and Ethnic Barriers in Counseling.
Vontress, Clemmont E.
There are numerous problems involved in counseling minority group members. Rapport is difficult to establish because of the racial and/or cultural attitudes client and counselor have toward one another; consequently the client often finds his own goals in opposition to those of counseling. The existing cultural gap also leads to different patterns of transference and counter transference; the client expects punishment and rejection from the counselor, while the latter might either be excessively sympathetic and indulgent with minority clients or convey "the great white father syndrome" to his clients. Language is another important factor which hinders effective communications between counselors and clients coming from different cultural backgrounds. Finally, the psychological characteristics of self-hatred, machismo, unwillingness to self-disclose, and modesty are other barriers to successful counseling. Many specific tests are not recommended for use with minority groups that have been culturally isolated and do not speak English fluently. Counselors should thoroughly understand all aspects of minority group cultures and should be careful in recommendations that aim to help their clients. (SE)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (81st, Montreal, Quebec, August 1973)