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ERIC Number: ED116926
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1975
Pages: 17
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Calcumate Part I: Effects of Using a Mechanical Device to Teach Subtraction with Borrowing to School Children. (Abbreviated Manuscript).
Robie, Douglas E.; And Others
This study investigated the effectiveness of using the Calcumate, a copyrighted commercially available product, in teaching subtraction to average, disturbed, and retarded children in third, fourth, and fifth grades. The mechanical device simulates borrowing in subtraction problems involving two-digit numbers. Forty students were given these devices for introductory work with subtraction; they were told to use the aids only as long as they needed them. The instructional phase lasted 30 days, with students performing subtraction problems each day. Third-grade students were given 20 problems to perform in 30 minutes; other subjects were given 10 problems and 15 minutes. In all groups, substantial gains in ability to subtract with borrowing were recorded. Eighty-five days after the special instruction ended, students were retested on subtraction without using their Calcumates, and achievement continued to be high. (SD)
The Calcumate product described in the abstract is available from H and H Enterprises, Inc., Box 3342, Lawrence, Kansas 66044 ($3.50; 20 percent discount on orders of 10 or more)
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A