ERIC Number: ED116777
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1973-Aug
Reference Count: N/A
Effects of Type of Preschool Experience and Socioeconomic Class on Academic Achievement Motivation. Final Report.
Stephens, Mark W.
Four experiments were designed to identify socioeconomic differences in preschool locus of control, develop a measurement technique for differentiating between internal and external locus of control in preschoolers, and study the effect of four kinds of preschool programs on locus of control. During the first experiment, the Stephens-Delys Reinforcement Contingency Interview (SDRCI) was developed to assess internal locus of control development in preschoolers. When used with 24 4-year-olds in a Head Start program, the measure was found to have rater and retest reliability; the race of the interviewer did not significantly affect scores. The second experiment indicated that the performance of 32 preschool boys on a mirror-tracing task was positively related to internal locus of control as measured by the SDRCI. In the third study, investigators tested 55 Head Start preschoolers and 50 middle-class nursery school children with the SDRCI. Lower internal control scores were found for the Head Start children than for the middle-class nursery school group; no differences were found between black and white Head Start groups. A final study of 114 children found a nonsignificant tendency for Montessori preschool experience (and to a lesser extent, parent cooperative nursery school experience) to increase internal control, as measured by the SDRCI, more than Head Start or a more structured compensatory preschool program. (Author/BRT)
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Cultural Influences, Experimenter Characteristics, Intervention, Interviews, Locus of Control, Measurement Instruments, Motivation, Observational Learning, Poverty, Preschool Education, Social Reinforcement, Socioeconomic Influences, Student Motivation, Test Reliability, Validity
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Center for Educational Research and Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Regional Research Program.
Authoring Institution: Purdue Research Foundation, Lafayette, IN.