ERIC Number: ED114206
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1975-Apr-11
Reference Count: N/A
The Effects of Task-Specific Instructions on the Encoding Activities of Children in Recall and Recognition Tasks.
Horowitz, Alan B.; Horowitz, Valerie A.
Two experiments examined the effects of task-specific instructions on the recall and recognition memory of kindergarten, 2nd and 5th grade children for pictorial stimuli. In Experiment 1, a recall test was used and prior to stimulus presentation subjects were given one of three instructions: either a Recall-specific set, a general Remember set, or a misleading Recognition-specific set. Recall data indicated no instruction differences at the kindergarten level, differences favoring the Recall-specific over the Recognition-specific set at grade 2, and differences favoring the Recall-specific over both the Remember and Recognition-specific sets at grade 5. In Experiment 2, the same instruction sets and stimuli were presented, but followed by a recognition test. Recognition data revealed no instruction effects at grade 5 (due to a ceiling effect), differences favoring the Recognition-specific and Recall-specific sets at grade 2, and scores favoring the Remember set at the kindergarten level. These findings were seen to reflect the uneven development of recall- and recognition-specific memory capabilities. The role of particular encoding and storage activities was discussed. (Author/JMB)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A