ERIC Number: ED113782
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1969
Reference Count: 0
Modernizing the Management of the Educational System. The Fundamentals of Educational Planning: Lecture-Discussion Series No. 35.
Lyons, Raymond F.
One of the main inadequacies in educational management is that planning is not firmly integrated within administration. Five basic processes may be distinguished in administration. The first is planning, or determining what shall be done. The second element of the administrative process is organizing, or defining the administrative structures and activities necessary to carry out the plan. The third is assembling the resources needed to execute the plan. The fourth process is supervising, the day-to-day guidance of operations. The fifth element is controlling, or seeing that operating results conform to the plan. There are different types of plans, including goals, single-use plans, standing plans, and policies. A clear recognition of goals is necessary if planning is to mean anything. Single-use plans design a course of action to fit a specific situation. A standing plan covers a continual action that can be used again and again. A policy is a general plan of action that guides the operation of an enterprise. The budget is an important instrument for coordinating purposeful and effective planning. Modernization of educational administration requires that adequate arrangements be made for the formulation, decision, and implementation of these different types of plans at appropriate levels within the educational system. (Author/JG)
Descriptors: Administration, Administrative Organization, Administrative Principles, Educational Administration, Educational Change, Educational Objectives, Educational Planning, Educational Policy, Models
IIEP Publications, 7-9 rue Eugene-Delacroix, 75016 Paris, France ($0.25, distribution charges)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.