ERIC Number: ED113085
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1974
Reference Count: N/A
State Responsibilities for American Indians -- Minnesota.
Goodwin, George V.; Finn, Skip
It is important to remeber that American Indians are citizens of both the nation and the state in which they reside and are entitled, therefore, to share in all privileges of such citizenship. The 1924 Citizenship Act was meant to pave the way for gradual termination of Federal responsibility for Indians. However, in Minnesota Public Law (PL) 280 (1953) served to confuse rather than clarify the responsibility issue, for while State jurisdiction over law and order was established, total responsibility was subject to misinterpretation since under Federal treaty Indian land and property were not taxable. The State and Indians interpreted PL 280 as an affirmation of Federal responsibility, but Federal officials interpreted it as the final step in full State responsibility. Since the Bureau of Indian Affairs continues to provide services to Minnesota's reservations, Indians perceive their educational needs as a Federal responsibility, thus enhancing the "ward" concept and contributing to public conviction that Indian educational and welfare services are Federal responsibilities. Since at this date Minnesota has neither the resources nor the stability to assume responsibility for its Indian citizens, Indians are demanding continued Federal commitment. However, total responsibility lies with the Indian people and the State and Federal governments. (JC)
Descriptors: American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Federal Government, Federal State Relationship, Higher Education, History, Legislation, Responsibility, State Government, Treaties, Urban Areas, Welfare Services
Not available separately, see RC 008 789. ERIC/CRESS, Box 3AP, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (on loan)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office of Indian Education.
Authoring Institution: Navajo Community Coll., Tsaile, AZ.; American Indian Resource Associates, Oglala, SD.
Identifiers - Location: Minnesota