ERIC Number: ED111495
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1975-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Sex Differences in the Meaning of Negative Evaluation in Achievement Situations: Determinants and Consequences.
Dweck, Carol S.
Sex differences in children's reactions to failure feedback in school situations were investigated by assessing the ways in which teachers use negative evaluation in the classroom. Three aspects of teachers' evaluative feedback were studied: (1) ratio of negative to positive feedback; (2) contingency vs. noncontingency of feedback; and (3) (the major aspect) the particular aspects of performance upon which negative evaluation was contingent. In 5 fourth and fifth grade classrooms, every contingent evaluative statement made by the teacher was classified according to the class of behaviors upon which it was contingent (conduct, intellectual quality of academic performance, or intellectually irrelevant aspects of academic performance). Feedback was also classified according to the reason for failure (lack of motivation, lack of ability, or other external factors). Boys and girls received virtually the same proportions of positive and negative evaluation for the intellectual quality of their work. However, there were striking sex differences in the contexts in which negative evaluations were given. Implications of these results were discussed in terms of teachers' evaluations of their students, differences in teachers' attitudes towards boys and girls, and sex differences in children's own achievement expectations and ability assessments. Some suggestions for consistent uses of negative evaluation in the classroom are included. (Author/ED)
Descriptors: Academic Ability, Academic Failure, Achievement, Behavior Patterns, Classroom Communication, Classroom Research, Elementary Education, Feedback, Interaction Process Analysis, Negative Reinforcement, Positive Reinforcement, Sex Differences, Student Attitudes, Student Motivation, Student Reaction, Student Teacher Relationship
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Illinois Univ., Urbana.
Note: Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (Denver, Colorado, April 11, 1975)