ERIC Number: ED111144
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1971-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Experimental-Ethological Analyses of Evaluative Expressions Among Retarded Children. Technical Report 23.2.
Paris, Scott G.; Cairns, Robert B.
Cited are two studies which analyzed the reinforcing effectiveness of verbal evaluative comments on educable retarded and handicapped elementary school children. In the first study, a two-choice push button discrimination, it is reported that Ss consistently chose a button which avoided the verbal comment "wrong", but made no significant distinction between "good" and a neutral nonsense word. In the second study, naturalistic observations of teachers' evaluative comments in six special education classes are said to indicate that positive comments were less informative than negative evaluation. It is explained that both studies supported the hypothesis that positive comments occur more frequently and serve more diverse functions than negative evaluations. (CL)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped.