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ERIC Number: ED107598
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1975-Apr
Pages: 18
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Sports and Games in New England Schools and Academies 1780-1860.
Albertson, Roxanne M.
Ideas concerning the value of games and sports for school children changed gradually between 1780 and 1860. Although not always condemned by teachers, those activities were not considered part of school in the early period. Sports considered acceptable for nonschool hours were utilitarian activities such as hunting, fishing, field sports, boating, and swimming. After 1830, educators debated the merits of joining students in sports participation in order to provide moral guidance. Parents sent their children to private instructors in the community during nonschool hours in order to learn "refined" sports. By 1860 many sports were advocated as healthy, useful, and pleasurable physical activities for young boys. The need of physical activity for girls was also suggested, but sports for girls were not strongly advocated by educators of the day. Many academies provided playgrounds and facilities for students to use during recess. A few schools provided special instructors for certain "refined" sports, and in a few schools faculty participated with their students in these activities. Sport clubs were organized in order to compete against other teams, but generally these sport clubs remained under student control until after 1860. The resistance to sports participation by children had decreased by 1860, but it was not until after the Civil War that educators began advocating the inclusion of sports in supervised physical education classes in New England schools. (Author/JS)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A