ERIC Number: ED106449
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1972-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Dilemmas of Development: The Village Polytechnic Movement as a Shadow System of Education in Kenya. Discussion Paper No. 156.
Despite rising sentiment, the decision to "de-school" society seems premature unless it derives from a comparative empirical assessment of school and nonschool educational programs' relative contributions to national goals. One of many new alternative systems, Kenya's village polytechnics (low-cost primary training centers in rural areas) are widely perceived to be alleviating unemployment and manifesting self-help. The polytechnic is significant as an ideological movement whose essence is an attempt to break away from conventional concepts and to develop types of training rooted in practical local and individual needs, conveying a sense of individual purpose and a capacity for continuing self-instruction. Data are used to illustrate the movement's achievements, problems, and potential in the task of national development--its major problems have derived from the pervasiveness of the ethic of formal schooling; part of the movement's achievement and much of its potential lie in the extent to which the polytechnics have nevertheless exemplified significant new principles of education: flexibility, availability, individualization, and relevance. The data suggest, however, that the alternative system must await modifications in the present social structure linking schooling and wage incentives before it can have extensive impact on educational philosophy and practice in Kenya. (Author/AJ)
Descriptors: Academic Education, Career Development, Community Attitudes, Community Responsibility, Community Schools, Comparative Analysis, Conventional Instruction, Developing Nations, Educational Assessment, Educational Experiments, Educational Philosophy, Educational Theories, Employment, Employment Problems, Foreign Countries, Job Training, Nontraditional Education, Relevance (Education), Rural Development, Vocational Training Centers
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). Inst. for Development Studies.
Identifiers - Location: Kenya