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ERIC Number: ED106132
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1973
Pages: 212
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
The Effects of Using Three Modes of Representation in Teaching Multiplication Facts on the Achievement and Attitudes of Third Grade Pupils.
Punn, Avtar Kaur
This study was conducted to determine the relative effectiveness of the use of three different combinations of enactive, ikonic and symbolic representation in teaching multiplication to third-grade students. Ninety students in three classrooms were instructed in accordance with the assigned treatment for nine weeks. Groups were equated using the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test, Elementary Level I, the NORC Occupational Prestige Rating Scale, and chronological age. Before and after treatment, subjects were given a researcher-developed Multiplication Usage test and Dutton's Attitude Toward Arithmetic Scale. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, and an analysis of covariance using the pretest attitude score as covariate. Results indicated that pupils using enactive and symbolic materials and those using enactive, ikonic and symbolic materials showed greater achievement and attitude change than pupils using only ikonic and symbolic materials. (SD)
University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 (Order No. 74-9739, MF-$5.00, Xerography-$11.00)
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Denver