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ERIC Number: ED105986
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1974-Apr-18
Pages: 15
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Observing and Planning for Play and Competence.
Neumann, Eva A.
This paper presents a framework useful for preschool and elementary teachers in developing a basic understanding of competency and play and their interrelationship. Specific guidelines are given for observing and planning toward increasing opportunities for competency and play. Competency is viewed as consisting of growth, risk-taking, and a positive self-concept, based on the theoretical work of Maslow, White, Rotter, and deCharms. Play is considered the child's major means of achieving competency through environmental transactions. Definitions of the elements, processes, operations, objects, and functions of play are briefly given within this context. The major implication derived from a discussion of the interrelationship between competency and play is that the more opportunities for play a child has, the greater in his potential for developing competency. Within this theoretical framework, the teacher is presented guidelines concerning: (1) analysis of the classroom environment for flexibility, information load, impact, pacing, transaction opportunities, locus of control, locus of reinforcement, and suspension of reality; (2) procedures for observing the child's transactions with the environment; and (3) intervention based on assessment of the environment and the child's transactions. (ED)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A