ERIC Number: ED105161
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1974-Dec-7
Individualizing Instruction and Management by Objectives.
Johnson, Milo P.
Three problems currently facing education are: reduced public confidence and reduced willingness to support budgets for all government agencies; unnecessarily expensive public education; and no recognized way to determine if an educational program is cost effective. A realistic system of management by objectives may be the best defense against all three problems, but it must be rejected as a system for directly evaluating the performance of administrators, teachers, or other employees. An examination of measurable and unmeasurable objectives and an identification of the constraints to learning lead to this conclusion: when a faculty member and administrator discuss the output of classes (units earned by students) each semester, and their discussion leads to increasing the output and reducing the cost, this becomes the essence of a management by objectives system. Institutional objectives should also relate to the spectrum of service functions, and faculty should be motivated to work toward a management by objectives system. This process needs to be monitored by an outside educational auditor who can assure the public that a statistically reliable selection of program objectives has been achieved as reported. The best process seems to be an institutional objectives approach to management by objectives with strong emphasis on increasing output and reducing costs. (Author/NH)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Vocational Association (New Orleans, Louisiana, December 1974)